Biomechanics of the elbow in sports.

Academic Article


  • In throwing activities, the elbow is sometimes stressed to its biomechanical limits. In this article, forces, torques, angular velocities, and muscle activity about the elbow are reviewed for the baseball pitch, the football pass, the javelin throw, the windmill softball pitch, the tennis serve, and the golf swing. The elbow goes through rapid extension in baseball pitching (about 2400 degrees/s) and rapid flexion in the javelin throw (about 1900 degrees/s). During baseball pitching, the elbow joint is subject to a valgus torque reaching 64 Nm, and requires proximal forces as high as 1000 N to prevent elbow distraction. The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) rupture in baseball pitching, lateral epicondylitis in the tennis backhand, and other injury mechanisms are also discussed.
  • Authors

    Published In


  • Baseball, Biomechanical Phenomena, Elbow, Football, Golf, Humans, Movement, Sports, Tennis
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Loftice J; Fleisig GS; Zheng N; Andrews JR
  • Start Page

  • 519
  • End Page

  • viii
  • Volume

  • 23
  • Issue

  • 4