Academic Article


  • We show that the only compact and connected subsets (i.e. continua) X of the plane R2 which contain more than one point and are homogeneous, in the sense that the group of homeomorphisms of X acts transitively on X, are, up to homeomorphism, the circle S1, the pseudo-arc, and the circle of pseudo-arcs. These latter two spaces are fractal-like objects which do not contain any arcs. It follows that any compact and homogeneous space in the plane has the form X Ɨ Z, where X is either a point or one of the three homogeneous continua above, and Z is either a finite set or the Cantor set. The main technical result in this paper is a new characterization of the pseudo-arc. Following Lelek, we say that a continuum X has span zero provided for every continuum C and every pair of maps f, g: Cā†’ X such that f(C) āŠ‚ g(C) there exists c0āˆˆ C so that f(c0) = g(c0). We show that a continuum is homeomorphic to the pseudo-arc if and only if it is hereditarily indecomposable (i.e., every subcontinuum is indecomposable) and has span zero.
  • Author List

  • Hoehn LC; Oversteegen LG
  • Start Page

  • 177
  • End Page

  • 216
  • Volume

  • 216