The plane fixed point problem

Academic Article


  • In this paper we present proofs of basic results, including those developed so far by H. Bell, for the plane fixed point problem. Some of these results had been announced much earlier by Bell but without accessible proofs. We define the concept of the variation of a map on a simple closed curve and relate it to the index of the map on that curve: Index = Variation + 1. We develop a prime end theory through hyperbolic chords in maximal round balls contained in the complement of a non-separating plane continuum $X$. We define the concept of an {\em outchannel} for a fixed point free map which carries the boundary of $X$ minimally into itself and prove that such a map has a \emph{unique} outchannel, and that outchannel must have variation $=-1$. We also extend Bell's linchpin theorem for a foliation of a simply connected domain, by closed convex subsets, to arbitrary domains in the sphere. We introduce the notion of an oriented map of the plane. We show that the perfect oriented maps of the plane coincide with confluent (that is composition of monotone and open) perfect maps of the plane. We obtain a fixed point theorem for positively oriented, perfect maps of the plane. This generalizes results announced by Bell in 1982 (see also \cite{akis99}). It follows that if $X$ is invariant under an oriented map $f$, then $f$ has a point of period at most two in $X$.
  • Authors


  • math.GN, math.GN, 54F20
  • Author List

  • Fokkink RJ; Mayer JC; Oversteegen LG; Tymchatyn ED