Early examples of intentional human cranial deformation predate written history. Intentional cranial deformation as an extreme has seemingly not persisted into this century. However, mild forms of this manipulation are still practiced by various groups worldwide. Accidental cranial deformation or mild forms of intentional cranial deformation may be encountered by the clinician or anatomist. We review the literature regarding intentional manipulation of the human cranium. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.