© 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. DNA is subject to a wide range of insults, resulting from endogenous and exogenous sources that need to be metabolized/resolved to maintain genome integrity. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I (Tdp1) is a eukaryotic DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes the removal of covalent 3′-DNA adducts. As a phospholipase D superfamily member Tdp1 utilizes two catalytic histidines each within a His-Lys-Asn motif. Tdp1 was discovered for its ability to hydrolyze the 3′-phospho-tyrosyl that in the cell covalently links DNA Topoisomerase I (Topo1) and DNA. Tdp1's list of substrates has since grown and can be divided into two groups: protein-DNA adducts, such as camptothecin stabilized Topo1-DNA adducts, and modified nucleotides, including oxidized nucleotides and chain terminating nucleoside analogs. Since many of Tdp1's substrates are generated by clinically relevant chemotherapeutics, Tdp1 became a therapeutic target for molecularly targeted small molecules. Tdp1's unique catalytic cycle allows for two different targeting strategies: (1) the intuitive inhibition of Tdp1 catalysis to prevent Tdp1-mediated repair of chemotherapeutically induced DNA adducts, thereby enhancing their toxicity and (2) stabilization of the Tdp1-DNA covalent reaction intermediate, prevents resolution of Tdp1-DNA adduct and increases the half-life of this potentially toxic DNA adduct. This concept is best illustrated by a catalytic Tdp1 mutant that forms the molecular basis of the autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy, and results in an increased stability of its Tdp1-DNA reaction intermediate. Here, we will discuss Tdp1 catalysis from a structure-function perspective, Tdp1 substrates and Tdp1 potential as a therapeutic target.