Infection with the ureaplasmas may occur in utero or perinatally in prematurely born infants. For some infants, infection with these organisms triggers a vigorous pro-inflammatory response in the lungs and increases the risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). At present, there is insufficient evidence from clinical trials to determine whether antibiotic treatment of Ureaplasma has any influence on the development of BPD and its comorbidities. Future investigation in the context of well-designed, adequately powered controlled clinical trials should focus on determining whether treatment of ureaplasmal infection lessens lung inflammation, decreases rates of BPD, and improves long-term, neurodevelopmental outcome. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.