The in vitro susceptibilities of 151 unique clinical isolates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma species to DC-159a, an investigational fluoroquinolone, in comparison with those to other agents were determined. Macrolides were the most active agents against M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium, whereas clindamycin was most active against M. hominis. DC-159a MICs were ≤0.5 μg/ml for all Mycoplasma species and ≤4 μg/ml for ureaplasmas. DC-159a was the most active fluoroquinolone tested against M. pneumoniae and M. fermentans, and it was second to moxifloxacin against the other species. It was bactericidal against 10 M. pneumoniae isolates and demonstrated killing of ≥99.9% of the inoculum at 24 h for 2 isolates. The excellent in vitro activity of DC-159a demonstrates its potential for use in the treatment of infections due to mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas. Copyright © 2008, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.