More than a century ago, investigators demonstrated that large electrical stimuli can cause sudden cardiac arrest [1,2]. Direct electrical stimulation of the heart can cause ventricular fibrillation (VF), which is a rapid uncoordinated contraction of the heart muscle that causes a loss of blood flow to the heart, brain, and other tissues. VF rapidly leads to a loss of consciousness which is followed by death unless electrical defibrillation is performed within a few minutes. Many studies have been performed during the past century to investigate the different types and strengths of electrical stimuli that may initiate cardiac arrhythmias . © 2009 Springer-Verlag US.