A panel of murine mAb specific for the chicken homologues of the CD3, CD4, CD8, TCRγδ, and TCRαβ has been used to study the distribution of T cells expressing these markers in sections of chicken lymphoid tissues. These studies have revealed that the T cells possessing the two classes of TCR occupy distinct histologic microenvironments. The TCR1+ cells (γδ TCR homologue) are localized preferentially in the splenic sinusoids and the intestinal epithelium, where most of them express the CD8 homologue. The TCR2+ cells (αβ TCR homologue), a majority of which express the CD4 homologue, are found primarily in the splenic periarteriolar sheath and the lamina propria of the intestine. The frequency and distribution of the two classes of T cells in the thymus is also unique. The different tissue homing patterns of the TCR1 and TCR2 cells suggest that they represent separate lineages of T cells with distinctive physiologic roles.