A PCR assay was used to analyze endotracheal aspirates from preterm infants for Ureaplasma parvum versus U. urealyticum. U. parvum was detected more often than U. urealyticum. There was no significant difference or trend in the prevalence of either species between infants with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia when isolated alone. Copyright © 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.