Desmoplastic fibroma is a benign intraosseous neoplasm that is recognized as the intraosseous counterpart of soft tissue fibromatosis in both gnathic and extragnathic sites. It has a propensity for locally aggressive behavior and local recurrence. In the present report, we define the clinicopathological and radiographic features of a desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible in an 8-year-old white boy who initially presented with a 2-month history of a rapidly expanding, painless mass along the right inferior border of his mandible. A critical and comprehensive review of the English language literature is also provided. © 2006 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.