Multiple myeloma (MM) cells reside in the bone marrow microenvironment and form complicated interactions with nonneoplastic, resident stromal cells. We previously found that aggressive MM cells shift osteoblast progenitors toward adipogenesis. In addition, adipocytes are among the most common cell types in the adult skeleton; both mature adipocytes and preadipocytes serve as endocrine cells that secrete a number of soluble molecules into the microenvironment. Therefore, we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods to test the hypothesis that an increase in adipocyte lineage cells feeds back to promote MM progression. The results of this study revealed that bone marrow from patients with MM indeed contains increased preadipocytes and significantly larger mature adipocytes than normal bone marrow. We also found that preadipocytes and mature adipocytes secrete many molecules important for supporting MM cells in the bone marrow and directly recruit MM cells through both monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Co-culture experiments found that preadipocytes activate Wnt signaling and decrease cleaved caspase-3, whereas mature adipocytes activate ERK signaling in MM cells. Furthermore, mature adipocyte conditioned medium promotes MM growth, whereas co-culture with preadipocytes results in enhanced MM cell chemotaxis in vitro and increased tumor growth in bone in vivo. Combined, these data reveal the importance of preadipocytes and mature adipocytes on MM progression and represent a unique target in the bone marrow microenvironment.