Pre-operative imaging with CA125 is a poor predictor for granulosa cell tumors.

Academic Article


  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the radiographic characteristics of ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) and to evaluate the use of CA125 levels >35 in combination with imaging as an algorithm for preoperative diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of women from two academic medical centers who were diagnosed with ovarian GCT between January 1998 and August 2012 was conducted. Clinical data included tumor appearance on pre-operative imaging and CA125 levels. Ovarian cysts were defined as complex if imaging exhibited multicystic areas, hemorrhagic, solid, or cystic and solid components. A CA125 level >35 was abnormal. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen women were diagnosed with GCTs, of whom 63 underwent pre-operative imaging. Median age at surgery was 46 years (12-87). Forty women had preoperative ultrasounds, 43 had CT scans and 20 underwent both modalities. GCTs were almost exclusively classified as complex cysts in 62 (98%) cases. The most common morphology was solid and cystic (n=44 (70%)). Forty-four (70%) patients had tumors >10 cm. Forty-two patients had a pre-operative CA125 performed. Eighteen (43%) patients had complex masses and CA125 >35. Twenty-three (55%) had CA125 <35 with a complex mass, and one (2%) had a unilocular cyst with a CA125 >35. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, there was a near equal distribution of patients with complex masses and CA125 levels > or <35. If established strategies to predict malignancy are applied to GCTs, we will frequently fail to make the diagnosis pre-operatively. Additional research is necessary to generate an appropriate algorithm to guide pre-operative referral to a gynecologic oncologist.
  • Published In


  • Granulosa cell tumor, Imaging, Ultrasound, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Algorithms, CA-125 Antigen, Child, Female, Granulosa Cell Tumor, Humans, Middle Aged, Ovarian Cysts, Retrospective Studies, Tomography, X-Ray Computed, Ultrasonography, Young Adult
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Stine JE; Suri A; Gehrig PA; Chiu M; Erickson BK; Huh WK; Soper JT; Van Le L; Conner MG; Kim KH
  • Start Page

  • 59
  • End Page

  • 62
  • Volume

  • 131
  • Issue

  • 1