Participant recruitment is considered the most difficult aspect of the research process. Despite the integral role of recruitment in randomized clinical trials, publication of data defining the recruitment effort is not routine in rehabilitation initiatives. The recruitment process for the Extremity Constraint-Induced Therapy Evaluation (EXCITE) trial illustrates obstacles to and strategies for participant accrual and retention that are inherent in rehabilitation clinical trials. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of the multiple facets of recruitment necessary for successful clinical trials, thus supporting the continued development of evidence-based practice in physical therapy. The Recruitment Index is presented as a variable to measure recruitment efficacy. In addition, ethical aspects of recruitment are explored, including informed consent and the concept of therapeutic misconception.