Mycoplasma hominis or Ureaplasma urealyticum have previously been isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 13 of 100 newborn infants tested from a high risk university hospital populaton where the mothers were of predominantly lower income and socioeconomic status and had often received little or no prenatal care. We sought to determine whether such infections occur in neonates born to women cared for mainly through private obstetric practices and who delivered in 4 suburban community hospitals. CSF cultures where done in 318 infants during an 8-month period. M. hominis was isolated from 9 and U. urealyticum from 5 CSF cultures. Four infants infected with U. urealyticum and 3 infected with M. hominis were born at term. One infant infected with U. urealyticum had a birth weight of <1000 g. In 5 inftants clearance of the infecting organism was documented without specific treatment. Tweleve infants had good perinatal outcomes regardless of treatment and 2 died. One death in a 2240-g infant infected with M. hominis was associated with Haemophilus influenzae sepsis and pneumonia. The other death occurred 3 days after birth in a 630-g infant infected with U. urealyticum who had evidence of meningitis and intraventricular hemorrhage. Results of this study suggest that mycoplasmas are common causes of neonatal CSF infections, not only in high risk populations, but also in the general population. © 1990 Williams and Wilkins.