Objective: To examine the effects of fluid intake and beverage type on stone formation in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: A matched case-control study. Setting: A rehabilitation center within a university hospital. Patients: Forty-one patients with SCI who were diagnosed with urinary stones between 1992 and 1998 (stone cases) and 171 age- and duration-matched controls were interviewed by telephone. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Urinary stones. Results: Stone cases were more likely than controls to be white, to be current smokers, to be users of indwelling catheterization, and to have a lower body mass index (kg/m2), worse renal function, and higher urine specific gravity (P<.10). In a multivariable model that adjusted simultaneously for other possible risk factors, the greater consumption of juice (>207mL/d) was associated with a 70% decreased risk (odds ratio=0.3; 90% confidence interval, 0.1-1.0). An interesting, but not significant (P=.15), increased risk for coffee consumption was observed. There was no association for total fluid intake. Conclusion: Total fluid intake does not appear to determine stone occurrence; however, fluid type may influence stone formation in persons with SCI. Further study is required to verify these findings, thus possibly leading to an effective fluid regimen for stone prophylaxis. © 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.