Objective: Identify factors associated with early treatment failure in a Treatment Alternatives for Safer Communities (TASC) program, a case management criminal justice diversion program for individuals under community corrections supervision. Methods: Demographics, medication history, substance dependence, and criminal history variables for 21,419 individuals were used as predictor variables for successful treatment outcome in a Cox Proportional Hazards Survival analysis which was used to assess the relationship between predictor variables and the length of time before treatment failure. Results: Early treatment failure was associated with a number of factors linked to social stability, including: being divorced separated or widowed, being less educated, being without insurance or on government insurance, and being unemployed. Regarding addiction and criminal history, being dependent on cocaine or opioids and being under supervision for person, property, or court offenses were risk factors. Being male and being a member of a racial minority were also risk factors for early treatment failure. Meeting criteria for sedative/hypnotic dependence and being under legal supervision for a substance offense were associated with a longer duration of time to treatment failure. Conclusions: Social stability, addiction history, and current criminal charges all appear to influence performance in TASC. Individuals with multiple risk factors may benefit from referral to a higher level of care upon admittance to TASC. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.