Dysregulation of the proteasome has been documented in a variety of human diseases such as Alzheimer, muscle atrophy, cataracts etc. Proteolytic activity of 26 S proteasome is ATP- and ubiquitin-dependent. O-GlcNAcylation of Rpt2, one of the AAA ATPases in the 19 S regulatory cap, shuts off the proteasome through the inhibition of ATPase activity. Thus, through control of the flux of glucose into O-GlcNAc, the function of the proteasome is coupled to glucose metabolism. In the present study we found another metabolic control of the proteasome via cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Contrary to O-GlcNAcylation, PKA activated proteasomes both in vitro and in vivo in association with the phosphorylation at Ser120 of another AAA ATPase subunit, Rpt6. Mutation of Ser 120 to Ala blocked proteasome function. The stimulatory effect of PKA and the phosphorylation of Rpt6 were reversible by protein phosphatase 1γ. Thus, hormones using the PKA system can also regulate proteasomes often in concert with glucose metabolism. This finding might lead to novel strategies for the treatment of proteasome-related diseases. © 2007 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.