Proteasomes are major cellular proteases that are important for protein turnover and cell survival. Dysregulation of proteasome is related to many major human diseases. Regulation of the proteasome is beginning to be understood by the recent findings that proteasomes are modified and regulated by metabolic factors O-GlcNAcylation and PKA phosphorylation. ©2007 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.