The case of a 34-year-old woman with both pyostomatitis vegetans and primary sclerosing cholangitis is reported and the literature reviewed. Pyostomatitis vegetans is a rare disorder characterized by friable pustules on the buccal mucosa and often peripheral blood eosinophilia. In this review, the frequent association of pyostomatitis vegetans with inflammatory bowel disease as well as the potential for pyostomatitis vegetans to present with sclerosing cholangitis and liver disease before any other manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease is discussed. Patients with pyostomatitis vegetans may need long-term care for gastroenterological disease in addition to treatment for oral lesions. © 1992.