Objectives. This study was performed to describe the initial experience and follow-up of ultrasound-guided compression of pseudoaneurysms in patients receiving systemic anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy, or both, after recent cardiac catheterization or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Background. Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm formation after an interventional procedure is becoming more common as larger caliber catheters and prolonged anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy are being used. Traditional treatment of this complication has been surgical repair. This study describes a new method of closing femoral pseudoaneurysms by using external compression guided by Doppler color flow imaging. Methods. Fifteen patients, 3 undergoing cardiac catheterization and 12 undergoing coronary angioplasty, developed an expansile groin mass at the vascular access site diagnosed as a femoral artery pseudoaneurysm by Doppler ultrasound. Seven of the patients had undergone coronary stenting and were receiving postprocedural anticoagulant therapy. These patients underwent progressive graded mechanical (C-clamp) external compression guided by ultrasound. The mechanical compression was titrated to obliterate the vascular tracts to these aneurysms and maintain adequate flow in the femoral artery. Results. After an average compression time of 30 min (range 10 to 120), these tracts remained closed. Follow-up ultrasound examination at 24 h or later confirmed continued closure in all. Conclusions. This study suggests that nonsurgical closure of femoral pseudoaneurysms is feasible. This technique may be valuable in managing vascular access-related complications after diagnostic and interventional procedures, even in patients requiring prolonged anticoagulant therapy. © 1992.