Combined Flt3L/TK Gene Therapy Induces Immunological Surveillance Which Mediates an Immune Response Against a Surrogate Brain Tumor Neoantigen.

Academic Article


  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary brain tumor with a median survival of 14.6 months postdiagnosis. The infiltrative nature of GBM prevents complete resection and residual brain tumor cells give rise to recurrent GBM, a hallmark of this disease. Recurrent GBMs are known to harbor numerous mutations/gene rearrangements when compared to the primary tumor, which leads to the potential expression of novel proteins that could serve as tumor neoantigens. We have developed a combined immune-based gene therapeutic approach for GBM using adenoviral (Ads) mediated gene delivery of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1-thymidine kinase (TK) into the tumor mass to induce tumor cells' death combined with an adenovirus expressing fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) to recruit dendritic cells (DCs) into the tumor microenvironment. This leads to the induction of specific anti-brain tumor immunity and immunological memory. In a model of GBM recurrence, we demonstrate that Flt3L/TK mediated immunological memory is capable of recognizing brain tumor neoantigens absent from the original treated tumor. These data demonstrate that the Flt3L/TK gene therapeutic approach can induce systemic immunological memory capable of recognizing a brain tumor neoantigen in a model of recurrent GBM.
  • Published In

  • Molecular Therapy  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • King GD; Muhammad AG; Larocque D; Kelson KR; Xiong W; Liu C; Sanderson NS; Kroeger KM; Castro MG; Lowenstein PR
  • Start Page

  • 1793
  • End Page

  • 1801
  • Volume

  • 19
  • Issue

  • 10