Business alliances, an important form of relationship marketing, are becoming ubiquitous. However, many alliances are unsuccessful. The authors provide an integrative model of alliance success based on sub-models that rely on the resource-based, competence-based, relational factors, and competitive advantage views of alliances. The authors then show how a theory of competition, “resource-advantage theory,” grounds the integrative model. © 2002 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.