© 2014, Academy of Marketing Science. As emerging economies experience unprecedented market and institutional changes, where should firms focus their attention to address new marketing challenges: network-based resources (e.g., managerial ties) or market-based capabilities? Building on institutional theory, this study examines the evolving roles of managerial ties and firm capabilities, as well as their interplay, in China. A longitudinal survey of 166 Chinese firms reveals that over time, the positive role of ties with the government (i.e., political ties) declines, whereas the positive effect of ties with the business partners (i.e., business ties) persists; marketing capability has a persistent effect, and technology capability exerts a stronger impact on performance. Moreover, as market development progresses, marketing capability positively interacts with business ties, whereas technology capability positively interacts with political ties, in fostering performance.