© 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York. While research has identified the causes and consequences of workplace aggression and bullying, little research has examined the factors that shape employee responses to aggression and bullying. In the present paper two studies are conducted in a healthcare setting to determine the factors that shape perceptions of aggression and bullying and how those perceptions subsequently influence employee reactions and sanctioning ratings. Empowerment, well-being, and communication satisfaction are examined to determine their moderating influence on reactions and sanctioning ratings to the incidents of aggression and bullying. The findings indicate that perpetrator type influences perceptions of aggression, that employees address incidents of aggression differently than incidents of bullying, and that empowerment and well-being moderate the relationship between perceptions of aggression and bullying and the subsequent reactions and sanctioning recommendations employees make.