266 Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a viable treatment strategy for patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer. We evaluated the Virginia Mason Protocol (5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, interferon-α and radiation) given in the neoadjuvant setting for the treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We performed a phase II pilot study treating patients with locally advanced pancreas cancer, including borderline resectable and initially non-resectable cases. Patients with evidence of metastases, previous chemotherapy, ECOG performance status >1, or inadequate hematologic, renal or hepatic function were excluded. RESULTS: We enrolled 23 patients between 1/2005 and 10/2010. Mean age at enrollment was 58.6 years. Males made up 73.4% of the cohort. Of 23 patients, 7 (30.4%) completed all treatments. The remaining 16 (69.6%) patients did not receive all scheduled treatments due to severe side effects (n=7, 30.4%), progressive disease (n=3, 13%), alternative treatment (n=3, 13%), patient withdrawal (n=1, 4.3%), other disease (n=1, 4.3%), and death on study (n=1, 4.3%). Hospitalization was required due to toxicity for 47.8% (n=11) of patients. The most commonly reported grade 3 or 4 toxicities were leucopenia/cytopenia (n=19, 82.6%) and gastrointestinal (n=19, 82.6%). Other toxicities were much less common (fatigue, weight loss, pain, skin rash, all n<3). Tumor regression was not seen in any patient. Surgical resection was ultimately successful in 7 (30.4%) cases. Surgical margins were negative in 6 of 7 cases (85.7%). The mean lymph node count was 11. Positive lymph nodes were identified in 3 of 7 cases (42.8%). Overall survival for all patients was 11.5 months. Surgical resection provided significantly improved survival (22.6 months) compared to CRT alone (8.8 months). Disease free survival in resected patients was 17.2 months. CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive neoadjuvant CRT with immunotherapy may allow for resection of initially non-resectable, locally advanced pancreas cancer, but with significant toxicity. Overall survival was similar to other, less toxic regimens. In the absence of surgical resection, survival remains dismal.