This investigation was conducted to determine the effects of an air-abrasive polishing system on various implant surfaces. Four each of the following types of implants were obtained from the manufacturer: Stryker DB (a titanium alloy implant), Denar Steri-Oss (a pure titanium implant), IMZ (pure titanium polished collar/plasma-sprayed body), and IMZ transmucosal implant extensions (highly polished pure titanium). Four samples of each type of implant material were placed in a group to be treated with an air-abrasive polishing system for 0.5, 1, 5, or 10 seconds, for a total of 16 samples. Scanning electron photomicrographs taken of each sample before and after treatment were analyzed by three examiners who were blind to the treatment conditions. They determined if the abrasion on the treated surface was greater than, equal to, or less than the pretreatment control. No perceptible difference was noted between the pretreatment and posttreatment photomicrographs regarding the surface integrity of the implant material surfaces. © 1997 Quintessence Publishing Co. Inc.