• Moon H. Nahm, Professor of Department of Medicine, with secondary appointment in Microbiology, obtained both his BA degree (in 1970) and MD degree (in 1974) from Washington University in St. Louis MO. In 1980, he completed both Internal Medicine and Laboratory Medicine residency training in Pathology Department, as well as completing post-doctoral research training in Microbiology Department at Washington University in St. Louis MO. He was a faculty member at Washington University in St. Louis and University of Rochester before he joined UAB. He was the director of the Clinical Immunology Laboratory for UAB hospitals.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2020 Phosphorylcholine esterase is critical for Dolichos biflorus and Helix pomatia agglutinin binding to pneumococcal teichoic acid 2020
    2020 Classical and lectin complement pathways and markers of inflammation for investigation of susceptibility to infections among healthy older adults 2020
    2019 Development for Clinical Use of a Multiplexed Immunoassay Using Sputum Samples for Streptococcus pneumoniae: A non-culture-based approach for serotype-specific detectionJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  57. 2019
    2019 Interlaboratory variability in multiplexed pneumococcal antibody testingJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  143:1255-1257. 2019
    2017 WciG O-acetyltransferase functionality differentiates pneumococcal serotypes 35C and 42Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  55:2775-2784. 2017
    2017 The pneumococcal serotype 15C capsule is partially O-acetylated and allows for limited evasion of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine-elicited anti-serotype 15B antibodies 2017
    2017 Position of O-acetylation within the capsular repeat unit impacts the biological properties of pneumococcal serotypes 33A and 33FInfection and Immunity.  85. 2017
    2017 Discovery of novel pneumococcal serotype 35D, a natural WciG-deficient variant of serotype 35BJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  55:1416-1425. 2017
    2017 Assignment of opsonic values to pneumococcal reference serum 007sp for use in opsonophagocytic assays for 13 serotypes 2017
    2016 A high throughput serum bactericidal assay for antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type bBMC Infectious Diseases.  16. 2016
    2016 Monoclonal antibodies to Shigella lipopolysaccharide are useful for vaccine production 2016
    2016 Pneumococcus with the "6E" CPS locus produces serotype 6B capsular polysaccharideJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  54:967-971. 2016
    2016 Indirect effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in national immunization programs for children on adult pneumococcal diseaseInfection and Chemotherapy.  48:257-266. 2016
    2015 Erratum: Discovery of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6 variants with glycosyltransferases synthesizing two differing repeating units (The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2013) 288 (25976-25985))Journal of Biological Chemistry.  290:26474-26475. 2015
    2015 Genetic, biochemical, and serological characterization of a new pneumococcal serotype, 6H, and generation of a pneumococcal strain producing three different capsular repeat units 2015
    2015 Pneumococcal capsules and their types: Past, present, and futureClinical Microbiology Reviews.  28:871-899. 2015
    2014 Commercially available complement component-depleted sera are unexpectedly codepleted of ficolin-2 2014
    2014 Blood collection tubes influence serum ficolin-1 and ficolin-2 levels 2014
    2014 Spectrum of pneumococcal serotype 11A variants results from incomplete loss of capsule O-acetylationJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  52:758-765. 2014
    2013 Diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia: Current pitfalls and the way forwardInfection and Chemotherapy.  45:351-366. 2013
    2013 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C presenting as recurrent prosthetic knee joint infection in a patient with a history of congenital asplenia and underlying autoimmune disease: A case report and literature reviewDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.  77:376-379. 2013
    2013 Invasive and Noninvasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule and Surface Protein Diversity following the Use of a Conjugate Vaccine 2013
    2013 Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsulesJournal of Bacteriology.  195:4552. 2013
    2013 The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine elicits cross-functional opsonophagocytic killing responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6D in childrenBMC Infectious Diseases.  13. 2013
    2013 Modified opsonization, phagocytosis, and killing assays to measure potentially protective antibodies against pneumococcal surface protein A 2013
    2013 Discovery of streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6 variants with glycosyltransferases synthesizing two differing repeating unitsJournal of Biological Chemistry.  288:25976-25985. 2013
    2013 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11D has a bispecific glycosyltransferase and expresses two different capsular polysaccharide repeating unitsJournal of Biological Chemistry.  288:21945-21954. 2013
    2013 Draft genome sequences of five multilocus sequence types of nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniaeGenome Announcements.  1. 2013
    2013 PspK of Streptococcus pneumoniae increases adherence to epithelial cells and enhances nasopharyngeal colonizationInfection and Immunity.  81:173-181. 2013
    2012 Novel pneumococcal serotypes 6C and 6D: Anomaly or harbingerClinical Infectious Diseases.  55:1379-1386. 2012
    2012 Device for carrying blood samples at 37°C for cryoglobulin test 2012
    2012 Impaired function of antibodies to pneumococcal surface protein A but Not to capsular polysaccharide in Mexican American adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2012
    2012 Long-term comparative immunogenicity of protein conjugate and free polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseClinical Infectious Diseases.  55. 2012
    2012 Biochemical, genetic, and serological characterization of two capsule subtypes among Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 20 strains: Discovery of a new pneumococcal serotypeJournal of Biological Chemistry.  287:27885-27894. 2012
    2012 From quellung to multiplex PCR, and back when needed, in pneumococcal serotypingJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  50:2727-2731. 2012
    2012 Development of a fourfold multiplexed opsonophagocytosis assay for pneumococcal antibodies against additional serotypes and discovery of serological subtypes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 20 2012
    2012 PspA family distribution, unlike capsular serotype, remains unaltered following introduction of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 2012
    2012 Structural characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 9A capsule polysaccharide reveals role of glycosyl 6-O-acetyltransferase wcjE in serotype 9V capsule biosynthesis and immunogenicityJournal of Biological Chemistry.  287:13996-14003. 2012
    2012 Differential occurrence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 11E between asymptomatic carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease isolates reflects a unique model of pathogen microevolutionClinical Infectious Diseases.  54:794-799. 2012
    2012 Issues and challenges in the development of pneumococcal protein vaccinesExpert Review of Vaccines.  11:279-285. 2012
    2012 Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsulesJournal of Bacteriology.  194:206. 2012
    2012 Immune responses to pneumococcal vaccines in children and adults: Rationale for age-specific vaccinationAging and Disease.  3:51-67. 2012
    2012 Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine at 12 months of age produces functional immune responsesJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  129. 2012
    2011 The structure of the capsular polysaccharide of pneumococcal serotype 11A reveals a novel acetylglycerol that is the structural basis for 11A subtypes (The Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009) 284 (7318-7329))Journal of Biological Chemistry.  286:43588. 2011
    2011 Active immunization with pneumolysin versus 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae keratitisInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science.  52:9232-9243. 2011
    2011 Development of an automated and multiplexed serotyping assay for Streptococcus pneumoniae 2011
    2011 Comparative structural and molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide serogroup 10Journal of Biological Chemistry.  286:35813-35822. 2011
    2011 Elucidation of structural and antigenic properties of pneumococcal serotype 11A, 11B, 11C, and 11F polysaccharide capsulesJournal of Bacteriology.  193:5271-5278. 2011
    2011 Establishment of a new human pneumococcal standard reference serum, 007sp 2011
    2011 Erratum: Identification of a simple chemical structure associated with protective human antibodies against multiple pneumococcal serogroupsInfection and Immunity.  79:3472. 2011
    2011 Type distribution of serogroup 6 Streptococcus pneumoniae and molecular epidemiology of newly identified serotypes 6C and 6D in ChinaDiagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease.  70:291-298. 2011
    2011 Structure of the capsular polysaccharide of pneumococcal serotype 11A reveals a novel acetylglycerol that is the structural basis for 11A subtypes (Journal of Biological Chemistry (2009) 284 (7318-7329))Journal of Biological Chemistry.  286:8707. 2011
    2011 Pneumococcal serotypes causing pneumonia with pleural effusion in pediatric patientsJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  49:534-538. 2011
    2011 Multilaboratory comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae opsonophagocytic killing assays and their level of agreement for the determination of functional antibody activity in human reference sera 2011
    2011 Older adults have a low capacity to opsonize pneumococci due to low igm antibody response to pneumococcal vaccinationsInfection and Immunity.  79:314-320. 2011
    2010 Differential circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6C clones in two Israeli pediatric populationsJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  48:4649-4651. 2010
    2010 Cross-reactivity of current serogroup 6 factor sera from Statens Serum Institut with the recently described pneumococcal serotype 6DJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  48:3044-3045. 2010
    2010 Low-cost, high-throughput, automated counting of bacterial colonies 2010
    2010 Changing antibiotic resistance pattern of serogroup 6 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children with upper respiratory infection during the period from 1997 to 2007Chinese Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy.  10:182-187. 2010
    2010 The burden and characteristics of tuberculosis/human immunodeficiency virus (TB/HIV) in South Korea: a study from a population database and a survey.BMC Infectious Diseases.  10:66. 2010
    2010 The effect of age on the response to the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccineBMC Infectious Diseases.  10. 2010
    2010 Identification of a simple chemical structure associated with protective human antibodies against multiple pneumococcal serogroups (Infection and Immunity (2009) 77, 8, (3374-3379))Infection and Immunity.  78:1414. 2010
    2009 Identification of 3-O-acetylglycerol, a novel structural element in bacterial polysaccharidesCarbohydrate Research.  344:2586-2590. 2009
    2009 Synthesis, conjugation, and immunological evaluation of the serogroup 6 pneumococcal oligosaccharides 2009
    2009 Superior immune response to protein-conjugate versus free pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine in chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.  180:499-505. 2009
    2009 Identification of a simple chemical structure associated with protective human antibodies against multiple pneumococcal serogroupsInfection and Immunity.  77:3374-3379. 2009
    2009 Lipoprotein lipase and hydrofluoric acid deactivate both bacterial lipoproteins and lipoteichoic acids, but platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase degrades only lipoteichoic acids 2009
    2009 Rarely occurring 19A-like cps locus from a serotype 19F pneumococcal isolate indicates continued need of serology-based quality control for PCR-based serotype determinationsJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  47:2353-2354. 2009
    2009 "Dodgy 6As": Differentiating pneumococcal serotype 6C from 6A by use of the Quellung reactionJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  47:1981-1982. 2009
    2009 Structure of the capsular polysaccharide of pneumococcal serotype 11A reveals a novel acetylglycerol that is the structural basis for 11A subtypesJournal of Biological Chemistry.  284:7318-7329. 2009
    2009 Immune response in infants to the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against vaccine-related serotypes 6A and 19A 2009
    2009 PCR-based quantitation and clonal diversity of the current prevalent invasive serogroup 6 pneumococcal serotype, 6C, in the United States in 1999 and 2006 to 2007Journal of Clinical Microbiology.  47:554-559. 2009
    2009 Antibody to the type 3 capsule facilitates immune adherence of pneumococci to erythrocytes and augments their transfer to macrophagesInfection and Immunity.  77:464-471. 2009
    2008 A new model of pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid structure resolves biochemical, biosynthetic, and serologic inconsistencies of the current modelJournal of Bacteriology.  190:2379-2387. 2008
    2008 A four-parameter logistic model for estimating titers of functional multiplexed pneumococcal opsonophagocytic killing assayJournal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics.  18:307-325. 2008
    2008 Lipoteichoic acid is important in innate immune responses to gram-positive bacteriaInfection and Immunity.  76:206-213. 2008
    2008 Pneumococcal vaccination for patients with COPD: Current practice and future directionsChest.  133:767-774. 2008
    2007 Genetic basis for the new pneumococcal serotype, 6CInfection and Immunity.  75:4482-4489. 2007
    2007 Guidelines for assessing immunocompetency in clinical trials for autoimmune diseasesClinical Immunology.  123:235-243. 2007
    2007 Discovery of a new capsular serotype (6C) within serogroup 6 of Streptococcus pneumoniaeJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  45:1225-1233. 2007
    2006 Development and validation of a fourfold multiplexed opsonization assay (MOPA4) for pneumococcal antibodies 2006
    2006 Platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase can monodeacylate and inactivate lipoteichoic acid 2006
    2006 Use of opsonophagocytosis for serological evaluation of pneumococcal vaccines 2006
    2006 Validation of a multiplex pneumococcal serotyping assay with clinical samplesJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  44:383-388. 2006
    2005 Anti-idiotypic antibody as a potential candidate vaccine for Neisseria meningitidis serogroup BInfection and Immunity.  73:6399-6406. 2005
    2005 Monoacyl lipoteichoic acid from pneumococci stimulates human cells but not mouse cellsInfection and Immunity.  73:834-840. 2005
    2005 Rapid multiplex assay for serotyping pneumococci with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodiesJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  43:156-162. 2005
    2005 Use of HL-60 cell line to measure opsonic capacity of pneumococcal antibodies 2005
    2004 A new murine model of humoral immunodeficiency specifically affects class switching to T-independent antigensEuropean Journal of Immunology.  34:1807-1816. 2004
    2003 Multilaboratory Evaluation of a Viability Assay for Measurement of Opsonophagocytic Antibodies Specific to the Capsular Polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae 2003
    2003 Pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is not as potent as staphylococcal LTA in stimulating Toll-like receptor 2Infection and Immunity.  71:5541-5548. 2003
    2003 Efficiency of a pneumococcal opsonophagocytic killing assay improved by multiplexing and by coloring colonies 2003
    2003 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of human antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharides 2003
    2003 Genetic relatedness of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from North AmericaJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  41:2458-2464. 2003
    2003 Peptide mimotopes as prototypic templates of broad-spectrum surrogates of carbohydrate antigens.Cellular and Molecular Biology.  49:245-254. 2003
    2002 Type III group B streptococcal polysaccharide induces antibodies that cross-react with Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14Infection and Immunity.  70:1724-1738. 2002
    2001 Chromogenic assay measuring opsonophagocytic killing capacities of antipneumococcal antisera 2001
    2001 Monoclonal antibodies specific for Neisseria meningitidis group B polysaccharide and their peptide mimotopesInfection and Immunity.  69:3335-3342. 2001
    2001 Comparison of a classical phagocytosis assay and a flow cytometry assay for assessment of the phagocytic capacity of sera from adults vaccinated with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 2001
    2001 Avidity, potency, and cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide serotype 6BInfection and Immunity.  69:336-344. 2001
    2001 Flavopiridol induces apoptosis and caspase-3 activation of a newly characterized Burkitt's lymphoma cell line containing mutant p53 genesBlood Cells, Molecules and Diseases.  27:610-624. 2001
    2000 A latex bead-based flow cytometric immunoassay capable of simultaneous typing of multiple pneumococcal serotypes (multibead assay) 2000
    2000 Towards a synthetic pneumococcal vaccine: Synthetic oligosaccharides as tools for improving the specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [1] (multiple letters) 2000
    2000 Acquired, but not innate, immune responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae are compromised by neutralization of CD40LInfection and Immunity.  68:511-517. 2000
    2000 Ablation of tumor necrosis factor receptor type I (p55) alters oxygen- induced lung injury 2000
    2000 An analytical model applied to a multicenter pneumococcal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studyJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  38:2043-2050. 2000
    2000 Pathway analysis in metabolic databases via differential metabolic display (DMD)Bioinformatics.  16:825-836. 2000
    2000 Peptide mimic of phosphorylcholine, a dominant epitope found on Streptococcus pneumoniaeInfection and Immunity.  68:5778-5784. 2000
    1999 Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide preparations may contain non-C- polysaccharide contaminants that are immunogenic 1999
    1999 Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6BInfection and Immunity.  67:1172-1179. 1999
    1999 Tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor I is important for survival from Streptococcus pneumoniae infectionsInfection and Immunity.  67:595-601. 1999
    1995 Functional capacities of clonal antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharideInfection and Immunity.  63:2989-2994. 1995
    1995 Germinal center T cells exhibit properties of memory helper T cellsCellular Immunology.  163:206-214. 1995
    1995 Singleton vs duplicate prostate-specific antigen measurements 1995
    1995 The V-region repertoire of Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide antibodies induced by immunization of infantsInfection and Immunity.  63:4219-4223. 1995
    1994 Comparison of nonhuman primate antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide with human antibodies in oligoclonality and in vivo protective potencyInfection and Immunity.  62:2426-2431. 1994
    1994 Endogenous serum antibodies that interfere with a common thyroid hormone uptake assay: Characterization and prevalence 1994
    1994 Properties of human follicular dendritic cells purified with HJ2, a new monoclonal antibodyCellular Immunology.  155:27-41. 1994
    1993 Comparison of naturally acquired and vaccine-induced antibodies to Haemophilus influenzae type B capsular polysaccharideInfection and Immunity.  61:5345-5350. 1993
    1993 Cost-effective method for detection of 'hook effect' in tumor marker immunometric assays [4] 1993
    1993 Endogenous antibodies that interfere with thyroxine fluorescence polarization assay but not with radioimmunoassay or EMIT(TM) 1993
    1992 Functional properties of human germinal center B cellsCellular Immunology.  140:331-344. 1992
    1992 Standardization of glycohemoglobin determinations in the clinical laboratory: Three years of experience 1992
    1992 The human antibody v region repertoire to the type b capsular polysaccharide of haemophilus influenzaeInternational Reviews of Immunology.  9:45-55. 1992
    1991 An idiotypic marker associated with a germ-line encoded κ light chain variable region that predominates the vaccine-induced human antibody response to the Haemophilus influenzae b polysaccharideJournal of Clinical Investigation.  88:1811-1818. 1991
    1991 Cytokine production by T helper cell subpopulations during prolonged in vitro stimulationImmunology Letters.  27:85-93. 1991
    1991 Germinal center T cells are distinct helper-inducer T cellsHuman Immunology.  31:67-75. 1991
    1991 Human rib bone marrow mononuclear cells spontaneously synthesize and secrete IgE in vitroClinical and Experimental Immunology.  83:163-168. 1991
    1990 Studies on the distribution of S-adenosylmethionine: Protein N-methyltransferases in human splenocytesClinical Chemistry and Enzymology Communications.  2:125-135. 1990
    1990 Heteroantibody: Phantom of the immunoassay 1990
    1990 Immunologic and clinical status of blood donors with subnormal levels of IgG2Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.  85:769-777. 1990
    1989 Subpopulations of B lymphocytes in germinal centers, II. A germinal center B cell subpopulation expresses sIgD and CD23Immunology Letters.  21:201-208. 1989
    1989 Alterations in Serum Immunoglobulin G Subclasses in Patients With-Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's DiseaseGastroenterology.  96:764-768. 1989
    1989 Immunology and immunopathology of the intestines: Antibody secretion by human intestinal mononuclear cells from normal controls and inflammatory bowel disease patients 1989
    1989 Mitogen-induced human IgG subclass expression. II. IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses are preferentially stimulated by a combination of Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I and pokeweed mitogenHuman Immunology.  24:207-218. 1989
    1989 More on "hook effects" in immunometric assays for prostate-specific antigen. 1989
    1989 New fluorescence assay for the quantitation of fungiJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  27:2003-2007. 1989
    1988 A simple in situ cyanogen bromide cleavage method to obtain internal amino acid sequence of proteins electroblotted to polyvinyldifluoride membranesBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.  155:1353-1359. 1988
    1988 Extremely high values of prostate-specific antigen in patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate; demonstration of the 'hook effect' 1988
    1988 Human IgG subclasses and their relation to carbohydrate antigen immunocompetenceDiagnostic immunology.  5:241-248. 1988
    1988 IgG2 subclass deficiency: IgG subclass assays and IgG2 concentrations among 8015 blood donors 1988
    1988 Semi-automated direct colorimetric measurement of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB activity after extraction from serum by use of a CK-MB-specific monoclonal antibody 1988
    1987 Altered patterns of secretion of IgA and IgG subclasses by ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease intestinal mononuclear cells.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology.  216 A:335-344. 1987
    1987 Expression of human IgG subclassesAnnals of Clinical and Laboratory Science.  17:183-196. 1987
    1987 Expression of human immunoglobulin G subclasses in inflammatory bowel diseaseGastroenterology.  93:1127-1129. 1987
    1987 IgG subclass deficiency and immunocompetence to carbohydrate antigensClinical Immunology Newsletter.  8:97-100. 1987
    1987 Study of the DBA/2Ha immunodeficiency: X-chromosome mosaicism and in vivo immunoresponsesImmunology Letters.  15:179-185. 1987
    1986 Spontaneous secretion of IgG subclasses by intestinal mononuclear cells: Differences between ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and controlsClinical and Experimental Immunology.  66:209-215. 1986
    1986 A new polymorphic determinant on HLA-DQ moleculesHuman Immunology.  16:24-37. 1986
    1986 False increases in serum creatine kinase MB isoenzyme detected in two patients by the Behring CK-MB quantitative immunometric assay. 1986
    1986 Turbidimetric assay of IgG with use of single monoclonal antibodies 1986
    1985 Correlation of serum immunoglobulin subclass concentrations with antibody responses of children to immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide-pertussis vaccineJournal of Clinical Immunology.  5:390-395. 1985
    1984 Monoclonal antibodies to mouse MHC antigens - I. Serologic characterization of ten anti-H-2 and anti-Ia reagentsImmunogenetics.  19:169-173. 1984
    1980 Antigenic similarities of rat and mouse IgG subclasses associated with anti-carbohydrate specificitiesImmunogenetics.  11:199-203. 1980
    1980 Improved diagnostic accuracy using monoclonal antibody to group A streptococcal carbohydrateJournal of Clinical Microbiology.  12:506-508. 1980


    Year Title Altmetric
    2003 Immunity to Extracellular Bacteria:.  1263-1284. 2003

    Research Overview

  • Pneumococcus is a major human pathogen causing pneumonia and is responsible for a large number of deaths worldwide among young children and old adults. Its virulence is mostly due to its carbohydrate capsule, which encases the pneumococci and shields them from the host immune system. Antibodies to the capsule can kill pneumococci and protect us from infections. Because our body can make these antibodies if the capsule is injected into us, the capsule is useful as a vaccine against pneumococcal infections. Pneumococci can express almost 100 types of capsule, but actual vaccines contain 10-23 common capsule types (serotypes). Following the widespread use of these vaccines however, serotypes absent from the vaccine have become more common, and vaccines have become less effective overall. To understand how pneumococci can evade vaccines, and to improve these vaccines, my laboratory studies diversity and immunity to the pneumococcus capsule. Our studies of capsule diversity have led us to discover many new and important capsule types. Our discovery of serotype 6C showed how pneumococci can evade pneumococcal vaccines and has provided knowledge essential to vaccine design. Our discovery of 11E showed that innate immunity can recognize capsule and induce changes in capsule-making genes as pneumococci adapt to live in different body niches. It also showed that innate immunity can recognize variable pathogen structures and how pneumococci adapt to different niches of the body. We are now investigating how completely the capsule encases a bacterium. If the capsule leaves some areas of the pneumococcal surface exposed, then the molecules in the exposed areas can be useful as new vaccines. To do this, we are currently studying bacterial capsules and their synthesis with new super-resolution microscopy, which can visualize down to molecular dimensions. Our studies of immunity to the capsule showed that some vaccines can elicit non-functional antibodies. Thus, vaccine development can be simplified if antibodies can be tested directly for their function. We have developed a practical way to measure antibody function by inventing MOPA (Multiplexed OpsonoPhagocytic Assay). MOPA has become essential in improving pneumococcal vaccines and has simplified vaccine manufacture and evaluation. MOPA is now facilitating production of low cost pneumococcal vaccines available for the entire world. Our laboratory has been serving as a reference laboratory to the World Health Organization in this field.
  • Principal Investigator On

  • Group B Streptococcus Serologic Assay Standardization  awarded by ST. GEORGE'S UNIVERSITY OF LONDON 2016 - 2022
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP 2019 - 2021
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP 2019 - 2021
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP 2019 - 2021
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP 2019 - 2021
  • Serological Assays to Predict Shigella Vaccine Efficacy  awarded by University of Maryland, Baltimore County 2016 - 2021
  • Integrating Microbial Glycan Arrays with Genomic Sequences to Study Host Microbe Interactions  awarded by Emory University 2019 - 2020
  • Private Grant  awarded by Jackson Laboratory 2016 - 2020
  • Acquired Deficiency of Innate Immunity (Ficolin-2) Among Elderly Adults  awarded by National Institute on Aging/NIH/DHHS 2015 - 2020
  • Private Grant  awarded by GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA 2018 - 2019
  • Private Grant  awarded by GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA 2018 - 2019
  • Private Grant  awarded by GLAXOSMITHKLINE BIOLOGICALS SA 2018 - 2019
  • RPRC Respiratory Pathogens Research Center  awarded by University of Rochester 2012 - 2018
  • Establishment of Functional Assays for Evaluation of Diarrheal Vaccines  awarded by PATH VACCINE SOLUTIONS 2012 - 2018
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP 2016 - 2018
  • Pneumoccoccal Colonization  awarded by University of Rochester 2015 - 2018
  • Private Grant  awarded by GlaxoSmithKline 2015 - 2017
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK SHARP & DOHME CORP 2015 - 2016
  • Serologic Analysis of VTEU Study 11-0034  awarded by University of Rochester 2015
  • A Multiplex Label-Free Chip for Pneumococcus Serology  awarded by University of Rochester 2013 - 2015
  • Private Grant  awarded by MERCK & COMPANY, INC. 2014 - 2015
  • Transferring MOPA4 to the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products of China  awarded by PATH VACCINE SOLUTIONS 2012 - 2014
  • The Role of wcjE Disruption in Pneumococcal Serotype 11A Humoral Escape  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2011 - 2014
  • International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) Group  awarded by JOHNS HOPKINS SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 2012 - 2013
  • Pneumococcal Capsule and Host Innate Immunity  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2012 - 2013
  • Bacterial Respiratory Pathogens Reference Laboratory Support  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2003 - 2012
  • Impact of a New Group 6 Serotype on Pneumococcal Vaccines  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2007 - 2012
  • 2012 International Meeting on Opsonophagocytosis Assy (OPA) Standardization  awarded by PATH VACCINE SOLUTIONS 2011 - 2012
  • Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines and Old Adults  awarded by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases/NIH/DHHS 2006 - 2011
  • Education And Training

  • Doctor of Medicine, Washington University/St. Louis 1974
  • Full Name

  • Moon Nahm