Positions

Overview

  • Barbara Gower is Professor and Vice-Chair for Research in the Department of Nutrition Sciences, and serves as Director of the Metabolism Core for the Nutrition Obesity Research Center and the Center for Clinical and Translational Science, and the Human Physiology Core for the Diabetes Research Center. Her research focus is on the interplay between diet, endocrinology, and metabolism and their relation to chronic metabolic disease, with expertise in evaluation of body composition, body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function. Her two major research areas are nutrition interventions for obesity and metabolic health, and risk for type 2 diabetes in African-Americans. She recently completed two NIH-funded studies concerning the role of diet macronutrient composition on reproductive and metabolic outcomes. The results from these studies were recently translated into clinical care, and have become part of UAB’s EatRight Weight Management Program. She currently is conducting two NIH-funded research studies to 1) probe how race-adiposity interactions and oxidative stress influence hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and 2) examine the role of exercise intensity in determining insulin sensitivity.
  • Selected Publications

    Academic Article

    Year Title Altmetric
    2019 Conceptual Model of Lean Body Mass in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition.  68:301-305. 2019
    2019 Chronic Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Mediators of Skeletal Muscle Pathology and Physical Impairment: A ReviewArthritis Care and Research.  71:173-177. 2019
    2018 Comparison of segmental body composition estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometryClinical nutrition ESPEN.  28:141-147. 2018
    2018 Dissection of hepatic versus extra-hepatic insulin clearance: Ethnic differences in childhoodDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.  20:2869-2875. 2018
    2018 Sleep quality is differentially related to adiposity in adultsPsychoneuroendocrinology.  98:46-51. 2018
    2018 A method for measuring human body composition using digital imagesPLoS ONE.  13. 2018
    2018 The sliding set-point: how insulin and diet interact to explain the obesity epidemic (and how to fix it).Current Opinion in Endocrinology and Diabetes.  25:303-309. 2018
    2018 Favorable effects of a ketogenic diet on physical function, perceived energy, and food cravings in women with ovarian or endometrial cancer: A randomized, controlled trialNutrients.  10. 2018
    2018 Higher carbohydrate intake is associated with increased risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality in head and neck cancer patients: results from a prospective cohort studyInternational Journal of Cancer.  143:1105-1113. 2018
    2018 Associations of neonatal adiponectin and leptin with growth and body composition in African American infantsPediatric Obesity.  13:485-491. 2018
    2018 Effects of a Standard American Diet and an anti-inflammatory diet in male and female miceEuropean Journal of Pain.  22:1203-1213. 2018
    2018 Pathophysiology of Type 2 diabetes in Children and Adolescents.Current Diabetes Reviews2018
    2018 Balanced high fat diet reduces cardiovascular risk in obese women although changes in adipose tissue, lipoproteins, and insulin resistance differ by raceMetabolism.  82:125-134. 2018
    2018 Effectiveness of a carbohydrate restricted diet to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescents with obesity: Trial design and methodologyControlled Clinical Trials.  68:95-101. 2018
    2018 Oral Supplementation with Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate, Arginine, and Glutamine Improves Lean Body Mass in Healthy Older AdultsJournal of Dietary Supplements.  1-13. 2018
    2018 A high-fat compared with a high-carbohydrate breakfast enhances 24-hour fat oxidation in older adultsJournal of Nutrition.  148:220-226. 2018
    2018 A ketogenic diet reduces central obesity and serum insulin in women with ovarian or endometrial cancerJournal of Nutrition.  148:1253-1260. 2018
    2017 Effects of Calorie Restriction in Obese Older Adults: The CROSSROADS Randomized Controlled TrialJournals of Gerontology, Series A.  73:73-80. 2017
    2017 Chest computed tomography-derived low fat-free mass index and mortality in COPDEuropean Respiratory Journal.  50. 2017
    2017 Effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, reactive oxygen species production, and metabolism in premenopausal womenMetabolism.  77:1-12. 2017
    2017 Potential Causes of Elevated REE after High-Intensity ExerciseMedicine and science in sports.  49:2414-2421. 2017
    2017 Gender-specific relationship between obesity and major depressionFrontiers in Endocrinology.  8. 2017
    2017 Hepatic but not extrahepatic insulin clearance is lower in African American than in European American womenDiabetes.  66:2564-2570. 2017
    2017 The impact of the Standard American Diet in rats: Effects on behavior, physiology and recovery from inflammatory injuryScandinavian Journal of Pain.  17:316-324. 2017
    2017 Central fat accretion and insulin sensitivity: Differential relationships in parous and nulliparous womenInternational Journal of Obesity.  41:1214-1217. 2017
    2017 Associations of human skeletal muscle fiber type and insulin sensitivity, blood lipids, and vascular hemodynamics in a cohort of premenopausal womenEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology.  117:1413-1422. 2017
    2017 Childhood maltreatment is an independent risk factor for prediabetic disturbances in glucose regulationFrontiers in Endocrinology.  8. 2017
    2017 Alterations in hemoglobin and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D are related before and after weight loss independent of African AdmixtureInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism.  27:59-66. 2017
    2017 African ancestry gradient is associated with lower systemic f2-isoprostane levelsOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.  2017. 2017
    2017 Associations of Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation with Body Fat in Premenopausal WomenJournal of Nutrition and Metabolism.  2017. 2017
    2017 Peri-muscular adipose tissue may play a unique role in determining insulin sensitivity/resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndromeHuman Reproduction.  32:185-192. 2017
    2016 Calorie restriction in overweight older adults: Do benefits exceed potential risks?Experimental Gerontology.  86:4-13. 2016
    2016 Association of late-night carbohydrate intake with glucose tolerance among pregnant African American womenMaternal and Child Nutrition.  12:688-698. 2016
    2016 Comparison of the Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometers for Assessing Total and Regional Body CompositionJournal of Clinical Densitometry.  19:290-297. 2016
    2016 Comparison of the Lunar Prodigy and iDXA Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometers for Assessing Total and Regional Body Composition.Journal of Clinical Densitometry.  19:290-297. 2016
    2016 Erratum: Associations of total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin with peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and B cell function in overweight adults (J Clin Endocrinol (2013) 98:7 (E1173-E1180) doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-1203)Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  101:2265. 2016
    2016 Relatively low β-cell responsiveness contributes to the association of BMI with circulating glucose concentrations measured under free-living conditions among pregnant African American womenJournal of Nutrition.  146:994-1000. 2016
    2016 Systolic blood pressure response after high-intensity interval exercise is independently related to decreased small arterial elasticity in normotensive African American womenCanadian Journal of Applied Physiology.  41:484-490. 2016
    2016 Impact of Major Depressive Disorder on Prediabetes by Impairing Insulin Sensitivity.Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism.  7. 2016
    2016 Erratum: Baseline insulin sensitivity affects response to high-amylose maize resistant starch in women: A randomized, controlled trial (Nutrition and Metabolism (2016) 13:2 DOI 10.1186/s12986-016-0062-5)Nutrition & Metabolism.  13. 2016
    2016 Baseline insulin sensitivity affects response to high-amylose maize resistant starch in women: A randomized, controlled trialNutrition & Metabolism.  13. 2016
    2016 Effects of 6-month supplementation with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, glutamine and arginine on vascular endothelial function of older adultsEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  70:269-273. 2016
    2016 Total Western Diet Alters Mechanical and Thermal Sensitivity and Prolongs Hypersensitivity Following Complete Freund's Adjuvant in MiceJournal of Pain.  17:119-125. 2016
    2015 Childhood maltreatment increases the risk for visceral obesityObesity Research.  23:1625-1632. 2015
    2015 A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetesJournal of Nutrition.  145:177S-183S. 2015
    2015 Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence baseNutrition.  31:1-13. 2015
    2015 Ictal adipokines are associated with pain severity and treatment response in episodic migraineNeurology.  84:1409-1418. 2015
    2014 Associations between vascular health indices and serum total, free and bioavailable 25-hydroxyvitamin D in adolescentsPLoS ONE.  9. 2014
    2014 Return of hunger following a relatively high carbohydrate breakfast is associated with earlier recorded glucose peak and nadirAppetite.  80:236-241. 2014
    2014 Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence baseNutrition2014
    2014 Cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult women: relationships with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin DEndocrine2014
    2014 Exercise dose and diabetes risk in overweight and obese children: A randomized control trialDiabetes Technology and Therapeutics.  16. 2014
    2014 Calorie Restriction in Overweight Seniors: Response of Older Adults to a Dieting Study: The CROSSROADS Randomized Controlled Clinical TrialJournal of Nutrition for the Elderly.  33:376-400. 2014
    2014 Cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult women: relationships with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin DEndocrine.  47:839-844. 2014
    2014 Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOSMetabolism2014
    2014 Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOSMetabolism.  63:1257-1264. 2014
    2014 Gut hormone activity of children born to women with and without gestational diabetesPediatric Obesity.  9:53-62. 2014
    2014 Insulin resistance indices are inversely associated with vitamin D binding protein concentrationsJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  99:178-183. 2014
    2014 Use of a simple liquid meal test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in childrenPediatric Obesity.  9:102-110. 2014
    2013 Divergent Effects of Obesity on Bone HealthJournal of Clinical Densitometry.  16:450-454. 2013
    2013 Favourable metabolic effects of a eucaloric lower-carbohydrate diet in women with PCOSClinical Endocrinology.  79:550-557. 2013
    2013 Higher Serum Insulin Concentrations Positively Influence the Bone Mineral Density in African American Adolescents.British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research.  3:1050-1061. 2013
    2013 Subclinical Indication of Linkage between Markers of Skeletal and Cardiovascular PropertiesBone Research.  1:291-297. 2013
    2013 Associations of Total and Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin with Peripheral and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Overweight AdultsJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  98. 2013
    2013 Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight lossObesity Research.  21:1133-1138. 2013
    2013 Racial differences in adiponectin and leptin in healthy premenopausal womenEndocrine.  43:586-592. 2013
    2013 Favorite foods of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the United States. Influences of ethnicity, gender, and educationAppetite.  63:18-23. 2013
    2013 Ictal adiponectin levels in episodic migraineurs: A randomized pilot trialHeadache.  53:474-490. 2013
    2013 The effects of weight loss on relative bone mineral density in premenopausal womenObesity Research.  21:441-448. 2013
    2013 Oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk in overweight children in an exercise intervention programChildhood Obesity.  9:15-21. 2013
    2013 Insulin sensitivity affects propensity to obesity in an ethnic-specific manner: Results from two controlled weight loss intervention studiesNutrition & Metabolism.  10. 2013
    2013 Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight lossObesity Research.  21:1133-1138. 2013
    2013 Gestational and early life influences on infant body composition at 1 yearObesity Research.  21:144-148. 2013
    2013 Gestational and early life influences on infant body composition at 1 year.Obesity Research.  21:144-148. 2013
    2012 Associations of C-reactive protein to indices of vascular health and the influence of serum 25(OH)D status in healthy adultsJournal of Nutrition and Metabolism.  2012. 2012
    2012 Insulin sensitivity is associated with thigh adipose tissue distribution in healthy postmenopausal womenMetabolism.  61:1817-1823. 2012
    2012 Effects of habitual diet on ethnic differences in serum total ghrelinEndocrine.  42:359-365. 2012
    2012 Exercise dose and diabetes risk in overweight and obese children: A randomized controlled trialJournal of the American Medical Association.  308:1103-1112. 2012
    2012 Higher postprandial serum ghrelin among African-American girls before pubertyJournal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism.  25:691-696. 2012
    2012 Response to effect of diet with and without exercise training on markers of inflammation and fat distribution in overweight womenObesity Research.  20:1336-1337. 2012
    2012 Circulating ghrelin and GLP-1 are not affected by habitual dietRegulatory Peptides.  176:1-5. 2012
    2012 Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and Ethnic Differences in Arterial Stiffness and Endothelial Function.Journal of Clinical Medicine Research.  4:197-205. 2012
    2012 Ethnic differences in glucose disposal, hepatic insulin sensitivity, and endogenous glucose production among African American and European American womenMetabolism.  61:634-640. 2012
    2012 Intra-abdominal adipose tissue is independently associated with sex-hormone binding globulin in premenopausal womenObesity Research.  20:1012-1015. 2012
    2012 Longitudinal associations of the endocrine environment on fat partitioning in postmenopausal womenObesity Research.  20:939-944. 2012
    2012 Race differences in the association of oxidative stress with insulin sensitivity in African- and European-American womenObesity Research.  20:972-977. 2012
    2012 Markers of inflammation and fat distribution following weight loss in African-American and white womenObesity Research.  20:715-720. 2012
    2012 A higher-carbohydrate, lower-fat diet reduces fasting glucose concentration and improves β-cell function in individuals with impaired fasting glucoseMetabolism.  61:358-365. 2012
    2012 Reduced carbohydrate diet to improve metabolic outcomes and decrease adiposity in obese peripubertal African American girlsJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition.  54:336-342. 2012
    2012 Aerobic exercise training conserves insulin sensitivity for 1 yr following weight loss in overweight womenJournal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology.  112:688-693. 2012
    2012 Overweight status and intrauterine exposure to gestational diabetes are associated with children's metabolic healthPediatric Obesity.  7:44-52. 2012
    2012 Do neighbourhoods matter? Neighbourhood disorder and long-term trends in serum cortisol levelsJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health.  66:24-29. 2012
    2011 Long-term effects of high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets on glucose tolerance in mice with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a deficiencyNutrition & Diabetes.  1. 2011
    2011 Associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and components of the metabolic syndrome in obese adolescent femalesObesity Research.  19:2214-2221. 2011
    2011 Reduced mitogenicity of sera following weight loss in premenopausal womenNutrition and Cancer.  63:916-923. 2011
    2011 Dietary macronutrient composition affects β cell responsiveness but not insulin sensitivityAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  94:120-127. 2011
    2011 Intramyocellular lipid and insulin resistance: Differential relationships in European and African AmericansObesity Research.  19:1469-1475. 2011
    2011 Lower uncarboxylated osteocalcin concentrations in children with prediabetes is associated with β-cell functionJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  96. 2011
    2011 Dietary adherence during weight loss predicts weight regainObesity Research.  19:1177-1181. 2011
    2011 Effect of diet with and without exercise training on markers of inflammation and fat distribution in overweight womenObesity Research.  19:1131-1136. 2011
    2011 Change in Insulin Sensitivity with Weight Gain is Determined by Fatness Better than by FitnessMedicine and science in sports.  43:792-792. 2011
    2011 Effect Of Diet With And Without Exercise Training On Inflammation And Fat Distribution In Overweight WomenMedicine and science in sports.  43:674-674. 2011
    2011 Higher maternal gestational glucose concentration is associated with lower offspring insulin sensitivity and altered β-cell functionJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  96. 2011
    2011 Age-related changes in insulin sensitivity and β-cell function among European-American and African-American womenObesity Research.  19:528-535. 2011
    2011 Maternal glucose concentration during pregnancy predicts fat and lean mass of prepubertal offspringDiabetes Care.  34:741-745. 2011
    2011 Differences emerge in visceral adipose tissue accumulation after selection for innate cardiovascular fitnessInternational Journal of Obesity.  35:309-312. 2011
    2011 African genetic admixture is associated with body composition and fat distribution in a cross-sectional study of childrenInternational Journal of Obesity.  35:60-65. 2011
    2011 Can Reduction in Dietary Carbohydrate Play a Role in Normalizing the Endocrine-Metabolic State Perturbed During the Pubertal Transition? The PRIMO Pilot StudyICAN: Infant, Child, and Adolescent Nutrition.  3:31-37. 2011
    2011 Relationship of intramyocellular lipid to insulin sensitivity may differ with ethnicity in healthy girls and womenObesity Research.  19:43-48. 2011
    2010 Lower bone mass in prepubertal overweight children with prediabetesJournal of Bone and Mineral Research.  25:2484-2493. 2010
    2010 Respiratory quotient predicts fat mass gain in premenopausal womenObesity Research.  18:2255-2259. 2010
    2010 Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone are independent determinants of whole-body insulin sensitivity in women and may contribute to lower insulin sensitivity in African AmericansAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  92:1344-1349. 2010
    2010 Adiposity and Β-cell function: Relationships differ with ethnicity and ageObesity Research.  18:2086-2092. 2010
    2010 Dietary calcium intake is associated with less gain in intra-abdominal adipose tissue over 1 yearObesity Research.  18:2101-2104. 2010
    2010 African genetic admixture is associated with body composition and fat distribution in a cross-sectional study of childrenInternational Journal of Obesity2010
    2010 Age Related Shift in Visceral Fat.International Journal of Body Composition Research.  8:103-108. 2010
    2010 Glucose metabolism and diet predict changes in adiposity and fat distribution in weight-reduced womenObesity Research.  18:1532-1537. 2010
    2010 Perception of exercise difficulty predicts weight regain in formerly overweight womenObesity Research.  18:982-986. 2010
    2010 Vitamin D intake is associated with insulin sensitivity in African American, but not European American, womenNutrition & Metabolism.  7. 2010
    2010 Exercise training prevents regain of visceral fat for 1 year following weight lossObesity Research.  18:690-695. 2010
    2010 Utility of waist circumference percentile for risk evaluation in obese childrenInternational Journal of Pediatric Obesity.  5:97-101. 2010
    2010 Associations of free fatty acids with insulin secretion and action among African-American and European-American girls and womenObesity Research.  18:247-253. 2010
    2010 Fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood lipids, and insulin sensitivity in African-American and European-American womenObesity Research.  18:274-281. 2010
    2010 Ethnicity-specific anthropometric predictors of metabolic risk in women.International Journal of Body Composition Research.  8:69-76. 2010
    2010 Postmenopausal hormone therapy: An endocrine society scientific statementJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  95:s1-s66. 2010
    2010 Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Muscle Lipids may Differ with Muscle Group and Ethnicity.Open Obesity Journal.  2:137-144. 2010
    2010 Self-reported low vitality, poor mental health, and low dietary restraint are associated with overperception of physical exertionJournal of Obesity.  2010. 2010
    2010 The Role of European Genetic Admixture in the Etiology of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Children: Are the Effects Mediated by Fat Accumulation?Journal of Pediatrics.  157. 2010
    2009 Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American womenEating Behaviors.  10:202-208. 2009
    2009 Effects of low- and high-glycemic index/glycemic load diets on coronary heart disease risk factors in overweight/obese menMetabolism.  58:1793-1801. 2009
    2009 Intrabdominal fat is related to metabolic risk factors in Hispanic Americans, African Americans and in girlsActa Paediatrica.  98:1965-1971. 2009
    2009 Relationships between reported macronutrient intake and insulin dynamics in a multi-ethnic cohort of early pubertal childrenInternational Journal of Pediatric Obesity.  4:249-256. 2009
    2009 Obesity attenuates the contribution of African admixture to the insulin secretory profile in peripubertal children: A longitudinal analysisObesity Research.  17:1318-1325. 2009
    2009 Perception of Others' Body Size Influences Weight Loss and Regain for European American but Not African American WomenHealth Psychology.  28:414-418. 2009
    2009 Uncoupling protein 2 Ala55Val polymorphism is associated with a higher acute insulin response to glucoseMetabolism.  58:877-881. 2009
    2009 High-milk supplementation with healthy diet counseling does not affect weight loss but ameliorates insulin action compared with low-milk supplementation in overweight childrenJournal of Nutrition.  139:933-938. 2009
    2009 Fasting and postprandial markers of inflammation in lean and overweight childrenAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  89:1138-1144. 2009
    2009 Insulin snsitivity in African-American and white women: Association with inflammationObesity Research.  17:276-282. 2009
    2009 Differential influence of diet and physical activity on components of metabolic syndrome in a multiethnic sample of children.Journal of The American Dietetic Association.  109:236-244. 2009
    2009 Effect of dietary adherence with or without exercise on weight loss: A mechanistic approach to a global problemJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  94:1602-1607. 2009
    2009 Physical activity may facilitate Diabetes prevention in AdolescentsDiabetes Care.  32:9-13. 2009
    2009 Physical fitness, activity, and insulin dynamics in early pubertal childrenPediatric Exercise Science.  21:63-76. 2009
    2009 Threshold for effects of vitamin D deficiency on glucose metabolism in obese female African-American adolescentsJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  94:3200-3206. 2009
    2008 Adiponectin multimers and metabolic syndrome traits: Relative adiponectin resistance in African AmericansObesity Research.  16:2616-2623. 2008
    2008 Ethnicity and weight status affect the accuracy of proxy indices of insulin sensitivityObesity Research.  16:2739-2744. 2008
    2008 Entero-insular axis and postprandial insulin differences in African American and European American childrenAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  88:1277-1283. 2008
    2008 Effect of oral estrogen on substrate utilization in postmenopausal womenFertility and Sterility.  90:1275-1278. 2008
    2008 Genetic variation in a member of the laminin gene family affects variation in body composition in Drosophila and humansBMC Genetics.  9. 2008
    2008 Baseline inflammatory markers do not modulate the lipid response to weight lossMetabolism.  57:598-604. 2008
    2008 Resistance training conserves fat-free mass and resting energy expenditure following weight lossObesity Research.  16:1045-1051. 2008
    2008 IAAT, catecholamines, and parity in African-American and European-American womenObesity Research.  16:797-803. 2008
    2008 Associations among insulin, estrogen, and fat mass gain over the pubertal transition in African-American and european-american girlsJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  93:2610-2615. 2008
    2008 Catamenial diabetic ketoacidosis and catamenial hyperglycemia: Case report and review of the literatureAmerican Journal of the Medical Sciences.  335:298-303. 2008
    2008 Longitudinal analysis of the insulin-like growth factor system in African-American and European American children and adolescentsJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  93:4917-4923. 2008
    2007 Intramyocellular lipid content is lower with a low-fat diet than with high-fat diets, but that may not be relevant for healthAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  86:1316-1322. 2007
    2007 Snack chips fried in corn oil alleviate cardiovascular disease risk factors when substituted for low-fat or high-fat snacksAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  85:1503-1510. 2007
    2007 Ability of the Harris-Benedict formula to predict energy requirements differs with weight history and ethnicityNutrition Research.  27:194-199. 2007
    2007 Relationship of visceral adiposity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in black and white teensObesity Research.  15:1029-1035. 2007
    2007 Elements of the metabolic syndrome: Association with insulin sensitivity and effects of ethnicityMetabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.  5:77-86. 2007
    2007 IGF-I Polymorphism Is Associated with Lean Mass, Exercise Economy, and Exercise Performance among Premenopausal WomenArchives of Medical Research.  38:56-63. 2007
    2006 Polymorphism in the transcription factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) gene is associated with reduced insulin secretion in nondiabetic womenDiabetes.  55:3630-3634. 2006
    2006 Relationship between insulin sensitivity and in vivo mitochondrial function in skeletal muscleAJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism.  291. 2006
    2006 Difference in dietary intake between women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy controlsFertility and Sterility.  86:411-417. 2006
    2006 Validity of new child-specific thoracic gas volume prediction equations for air-displacements plethysmographyBMC Pediatrics.  6. 2006
    2006 Changes in intra-abdominal fat in early postmenopausal women: Effects of hormone useObesity Research.  14:1046-1055. 2006
    2006 Role of diet in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndromeFertility and Sterility.  85:679-688. 2006
    2006 Increased resting energy expenditure after 40 minutes of aerobic but not resistance exerciseObesity Research.  14:2018-2025. 2006
    2006 Longitudinal changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and β-cell function during pubertyJournal of Pediatrics.  148:16-22. 2006
    2005 Early ethnic difference in insulin-like growth factor-1 is associated with African genetic admixturePediatric Research.  58:850-854. 2005
    2005 Adiponectin is lower among African Americans and is independently related to insulin sensitivity in children and adolescentsDiabetes.  54:2772-2778. 2005
    2005 Association of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein Ala 54Thr polymorphism and abdominal adipose tissue in African-American and Caucasian womenJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  90:1196-1201. 2005
    2005 Apolipoprotein A-II polymorphism and visceral adiposity in African-American and white womenObesity Research.  13:507-512. 2005
    2005 Dietary fat intake and insulin resistance in black and white childrenObesity Research.  13:1630-1637. 2005
    2005 Synergistic heterozygosity in mice with inherited enzyme deficiencies of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidationMolecular Genetics and Metabolism.  85:7-11. 2005
    2004 Relations of fatness and fitness to fasting insulin in black and white adolescentsJournal of Pediatrics.  145:737-743. 2004
    2004 Weight loss and race modulate nitric oxide metabolism in overweight womenFree Radical Biology and Medicine.  37:695-702. 2004
    2004 Comparison of self-reported with objectively assessed energy expenditure in black and white women before and after weight lossAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  79:1013-1019. 2004
    2004 Increased n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not attenuate the effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin sensitivity or triacylglycerol reduction in Indian AsiansAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  79:983-991. 2004
    2004 Dietary Phytoestrogens Increase Metabolic Resistance (Cold Tolerance) in Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase-Deficient MiceJournal of Nutrition.  134:1028-1031. 2004
    2004 Ability of the actiwatch accelerometer to predict free-living energy expenditure in young childrenObesity Research.  12:1859-1865. 2004
    2004 Influence of dietary fatty acid chain-length on metabolic tolerance in mouse models of inherited defects in mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidationMolecular Genetics and Metabolism.  83:322-329. 2004
    2004 Revised QUICKI provides a strong surrogate estimate of insulin sensitivity when compared with the minimal modelInternational Journal of Obesity.  28:222-227. 2004
    2004 Weight change affects serum leptin and corticosterone in the collared lemmingGeneral and Comparative Endocrinology.  136:30-36. 2004
    2003 HIV Protease Inhibitor Ritonavir Induces Lipoatrophy in Male MiceAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.  19:1141-1150. 2003
    2003 Using genetic admixture to explain racial differences in insulin-related phenotypesDiabetes.  52:1047-1051. 2003
    2003 Relationship between serum leptin concentration and low-density muscle in postmenopausal womenJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  88:1157-1161. 2003
    2003 Energy balance, body composition, and puberty in children and adolescents: Importance of ethnicityCurrent Opinion in Endocrinology and Diabetes.  10:9-22. 2003
    2003 Gender differences in resistance-training-induced myofiber hypertrophy among older adultsJournals of Gerontology, Series A.  58:108-116. 2003
    2003 Influence of family history of type 2 diabetes on insulin sensitivity in prepubertal childrenJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  88:192-195. 2003
    2002 Effects of weight loss on changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid concentrations in premenopausal African American and white womenAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  76:923-927. 2002
    2002 Insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in black and white childrenHypertension.  40:18-22. 2002
    2002 Contribution of insulin secretion and clearance to glucose-induced insulin concentration in african-american and caucasian children.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  87:2218-2224. 2002
    2002 Contribution of insulin secretion and clearance to glucose-induced insulin concentration in African-American and Caucasian childrenJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  87:2218-2224. 2002
    2002 Effect of changes in fat distribution on the rates of change of insulin response in childrenObesity Research.  10:978-984. 2002
    2002 Estradiol may limit lipid oxidation via Cpt 1 expression and hormonal mechanismsObesity Research.  10:167-172. 2002
    2002 Evaluation of liver fatty acid oxidation in the leptin-deficient obese mouseMolecular Genetics and Metabolism.  75:219-226. 2002
    2002 Fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women: Influence of hormone replacementObesity Research.  10:424-431. 2002
    2001 Body fat distribution in white and black women: Different patterns of intraabdominal and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue utilization with weight lossAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  74:631-636. 2001
    2001 Longitudinal Study on Pubertal Insulin ResistanceDiabetes.  50:2444-2450. 2001
    2001 Effect of scalp and facial hair on air displacement plethysmography estimates of percentage of body fatObesity Research.  9:326-330. 2001
    2001 Mechanical load increases muscle IGF-I and androgen receptor mRNA concentrations in humansAJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism.  280. 2001
    2001 Body fat, fat distribution and serum lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in African-American and Caucasian-American prepubertal childrenInternational Journal of Obesity.  25:198-204. 2001
    2001 Erratum: Visceral fat, insulin sensitivity and upids in prepulbertal childre. (Diabetes 48: 1515-1521, 1999)Diabetes.  50:477. 2001
    2001 A longitudinal study of resting energy expenditure relative to body composition during puberty in African American and white childrenAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  73:308-315. 2001
    2001 Age-related decrease in resting energy expenditure in sedentary white women: Effects of regional differences in lean and fat massAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  73:333-337. 2001
    2001 Anti-lipolytic effects of insulin in African American and white prepubertal boysObesity Research.  9:224-228. 2001
    2001 Defining health-related obesity in prepubertal childrenObesity Research.  9:233-240. 2001
    2001 Influence of total vs. Visceral fat on insulin action and secretion in African American and white childrenObesity Research.  9:423-431. 2001
    2000 Associations among oral estrogen use, free testosterone concentration, and lean body mass among postmenopausal womenJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  85:4476-4480. 2000
    2000 Leptin in postmenopausal women: Influence of hormone therapy, insulin, and fat distributionJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  85:1770-1775. 2000
    2000 Transgenic studies of fatty acid oxidation gene expression in nonobese diabetic miceJournal of Lipid Research.  41:2063-2070. 2000
    2000 Levels of progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol, and androstenedione metabolism in the gonads of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata:Echinoidea)Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology.  126:153-165. 2000
    2000 Leptin in postmenopausal women: influence of hormone therapy, insulin, and fat distribution.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  85:1770-1775. 2000
    2000 Role of dietary factors in ethnic differences in early risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetesAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  71:725-732. 2000
    2000 Racial differences in insulin secretion and sensitivity in prepubertal children: Role of physical fitness and physical activityObesity Research.  8:506-515. 2000
    2000 Responses of ovaries and testes of Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) to dietary administration of estradiol, progesterone and testosteroneMarine Biology.  137:245-255. 2000
    1999 Visceral fat, insulin sensitivity, and lipids in prepubertal childrenDiabetes.  48:1515-1521. 1999
    1999 Relation between visceral fat and disease risk in children and adolescentsAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  70. 1999
    1999 Relation between visceral fat and disease risk in children and adolescents.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  70:149S-156S. 1999
    1999 Do hormonal indices of maturation explain energy expenditure differences in African American and Caucasian prepubertal children?International Journal of Obesity.  23:1320-1326. 1999
    1999 Predicting body composition from anthropometry in pre-adolescent childrenInternational Journal of Obesity.  23:253-259. 1999
    1999 Syndrome X in children: Influence of ethnicity and visceral fatAmerican Journal of Human Biology.  11:249-257. 1999
    1998 Abdominal obesity and cardiovascular risk in childrenCoronary Artery Disease.  9:483-487. 1998
    1998 Developmental changes in energy expenditure and physical activity in children: Evidence for a decline in physical activity in girls before pubertyPediatrics.  101:887-891. 1998
    1998 Total, resting, and activity-related energy expenditures are similar in Caucasian and African-American childrenAJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism.  274:E232-E237. 1998
    1998 Total, resting, and activity-related energy expenditures are similar in Caucasian and African-American children.American Journal of Physiology.  274:E232-E237. 1998
    1998 Fat distribution and insulin response in prepubertal African American and white childrenAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  67:821-827. 1998
    1998 Fat distribution and plasma lipid-lipoprotein concentrations in pre- and postmenopausal womenInternational Journal of Obesity.  22:605-611. 1998
    1998 Influence of sex, seasonality, ethnicity, and geographic location on the components of total energy expenditure in young children: Implications for energy requirementsAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  68:675-682. 1998
    1998 Longitudinal changes in fatness in white children: No effect of childhood energy expenditureAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  67:309-316. 1998
    1998 Prediction of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in healthy pre-pubertal childrenInternational Journal of Obesity.  22:549-558. 1998
    1998 Relationships between dietary fat, body fat, and serum lipid profile in prepubertal childrenObesity Research.  6:400-407. 1998
    1998 Spontaneous testicular regression in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) exposed to prolonged long photoperiodJournal of Reproduction and Fertility.  113:307-313. 1998
    1997 Serum leptin and energy expenditure in children.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  82:4149-4153. 1997
    1997 Maximal aerobic capacity in African-American and Caucasian prepubertal childrenAJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism.  273. 1997
    1997 Maximal aerobic capacity in African-American and Caucasian prepubertal childrenAJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism.  273:E809-E814. 1997
    1997 Maximal aerobic capacity in African-American and Caucasian prepubertal children.American Journal of Physiology.  273:E809-E814. 1997
    1997 Effects of gender, ethnicity, body composition, and fat distribution on serum leptin concentrations in childrenJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  82:2148-2152. 1997
    1997 Effects of gender, ethnicity, body composition, and fat distribution on serum leptin concentrations in children.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  82:2148-2152. 1997
    1997 Alteration of testicular response to long photoperiod by transient exposure to short photoperiod in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)Journal of Reproduction and Fertility.  109:257-262. 1997
    1997 Correlates of leptin concentration in the San Antonio Heart Study.Annals of Epidemiology.  7:79-80. 1997
    1997 Serum leptin and energy expenditure in childrenJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.  82:4149-4153. 1997
    1997 Stress responses in avian embryosAmerican Zoologist.  37:536-545. 1997
    1997 Visceral fat in white and African American prepubertal childrenAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  65:1703-1708. 1997
    1996 Influence of photoperiod, time, and sex on hormone concentrations in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)General and Comparative Endocrinology.  101:53-62. 1996
    1995 Endocrine correlates of seasonal body mass dynamics in the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)American Zoologist.  35:246-258. 1995
    1995 Release of amino acids and related compounds from the adrenal equivalent and caudal vein of the eel in vitroComparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology.  112:275-283. 1995
    1994 PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD ON COLLARED LEMMINGS (DICROSTONYX GROENLANDICUS)AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.  267:R879-R887. 1994
    1994 Pre- and postnatal effects of photoperiod on collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus).American Journal of Physiology.  267:R879-R887. 1994
    1994 Effect of photoperiod, testosterone, and estradiol on body mass, bifid claw size, and pelage color in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)General and Comparative Endocrinology.  93:459-470. 1994
    1994 Photoperiod effects on body mass, body composition, growth hormone, and thyroid hormones in male collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)Canadian Journal of Zoology.  72:1726-1734. 1994
    1994 Pre- and postnatal effects of photoperiod on collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.  267. 1994
    1994 Pre- and postnatal effects of photoperiod on collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.  267. 1994
    1994 Response of collared lemmings to melatonin: I. Implants and photoperiodJournal of Pineal Research.  17:177-184. 1994
    1994 Response of collared lemmings to melatonin: II. Infusions and photoperiodJournal of Pineal Research.  17:185-194. 1994
    1993 Development of collared lemmings, Dicrostonyx groenlandicus, is influenced by pre‐ and postweaning photoperiodsJournal of Experimental Zoology.  267:533-542. 1993
    1993 Role of prolactin and the gonads in seasonal physiological changes in the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)Journal of Experimental Zoology.  266:92-101. 1993
    1993 Threshold photoperiods for the induction of short day traits in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)Journal of Experimental Zoology.  267:57-66. 1993
    1992 Role of photoperiod in reproductive maturation and peripubertal hormone concentrations in male collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus)Journal of Reproduction and Fertility.  96:153-163. 1992
    1990 Reproductive Responses of Male Microtus montanus to Photoperiod, Melatonin, and 6‐MBOAJournal of Pineal Research.  8:297-312. 1990
    1986 Beta-adrenergic binding is increased by melatonin and alpha-adrenergic compoundsBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.  138:1196-1202. 1986

    Chapter

    Year Title Altmetric
    2016 Puberty, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.  175-196. 2016

    Education And Training

  • Doctor of Philosophy in Biology, University of Utah 1990
  • Bachelor of Science or Mathematics in Microbiology, Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education 1980
  • Full Name

  • Barbara Gower